University of Sydney led study found participants who had both high levels of physical activity and a high-quality diet had the lowest risk of death.
Published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, the researchers examined the independent and joint effects of diet and physical activity with all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality using a large population-based sample (360,600) of British adults from the UK Biobank.
The UK Biobank is a large-scale biomedical cohort study containing in-depth biological, behavioural, and health information from participants.
High quality diets included at least five portions of fruit and vegetables every day,two portions of fish per week and lower consumption of red meat, particularly processed meat.
The study revealed that for those who had high levels of physical activity and a high-quality diet, their mortality risk was reduced by 17 percent from all causes, 19 percent from cardiovascular disease and 27 percent from selected cancers, as compared with those with the worst diet who were physically inactive.
Lead author Associate Professor Melody Ding from the Charles Perkins Centre and the Faculty of Medicine and Health at the University of Sydney said:
“Both regular physical activity and a healthy diet play an important role in promoting health and longevity.
“Some people may think they could offset the impacts of a poor diet with high levels of exercise or offset the impacts of low physical activity with a high-quality diet, but the data shows that unfortunately this is not the case.”
“Adhering to both a quality diet and sufficient physical activity is important for optimally reducing the risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancers,” says co-author Joe Van Buskirk, from the School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health.
During a median follow-up of 11.2 years, 13 869 participants died from all causes, including 2650 from CVD and 4522 from cancers.
Although not reaching statistical significance for all-cause and CVD mortality, being in the best dietary category was associated with a reduction in cancer mortality (HR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.93).
“No additive or multiplicative interactions between physical activity categories and dietary quality was found. When comparing across physical activity and diet combinations, the lowest risk combinations consistently included the higher levels of physical activity and the highest diet quality score,” the paper states.
However, the long-term effects on how diet and physical activity interact with each other remained less explored. The findings from this study confirm the importance of both physical activity and quality diet in all-cause and cause-specific mortality.
“This study reinforces the importance of both physical activity and diet quality for achieving the greatest reduction in mortality risk,” said Associate Professor Ding.
“Public health messages and clinical advice should focus on promoting both physical activity and dietary guidelines to promote healthy longevity.”
Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Physical activity, diet quality and all-cause cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality: a prospective study of 346 627 UK Biobank participants
Authors: Melody Ding, et al.